Design and Optimization of Smart Central Heating Units for Homes; Energy and Environment Nexus

Document Type : Research Article


1 College of Environment, University of Tehran (Kish International Campus), Kish, Iran

2 School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA



Due to urban extension, air pollution is continuously getting to be a vital issue in present day social orders, particularly in metropolitan zones. Owing to the tremendous characteristic gas assets in Iran, a significant number of residential, commercial and industrial sectors use the central heating unit (CHU) as a source for warming. Emission of pollutants from these sources not only increases environmental degradation and energy consumption, but it also decreases the working life of heating systems and the safety factor. Thus, planning and improvement of inventive frameworks in this division can result in noteworthy diminishment of pollution and increment of energy consumption productivity. In this paper, a smart CHU has been designed and implemented, using an innovative intelligent network with the aim of optimizing burner performance in a 2250 square meter residential building. Furthermore, carbon monoxide (CO) emission and fuel consumption were analyzed and reduced simultaneously. The use of software and hardware elements in the design has reduced the working hours of the burner and improved its performance according to the required heat capacity at different times of the day. The result of this innovation showed a reduction in CO emission by 28% and an increment in energy saving by 25%, in comparison to the initial state. This study further indicates how intelligent control can significantly lower the pollution and optimize energy consumption.


Aghamolaei, R., and Ghaani, M. R. (2020). Balancing the impacts of energy efficiency strategies on comfort quality of interior places: Application of optimization algorithms in domestic housing. Journal of Building Engineering, 29, 101174.
Ahmadi, S., Fakehi, A. H., Vakili, A., & Moeini-Aghtaie, M. (2020). An optimization model for the long-term energy planning based on useful energy, economic and environmental pollution reduction in residential sector: A case of Iran. Journal of Building Engineering, 30, 101247.
Amid, S., Aghbashlo, M., Tabatabaei, M., Karimi, K., Nizami, A. S., Rehan, M., et al. (2021). Exergetic, exergoeconomic, and exergoenvironmental aspects of an industrial-scale molasses-based ethanol production plant. Energy Conversion and Management, 227, 113637.
Clitan, I., Muresan, V., Abrudean, M., and Clitan, A. F. (2021). Distributed Heating System for Residential Homes. International Journal of Modeling and Optimization, 11(1).
Dai, B., Qi, H., Dou, W., Liu, S., Zhong, D., Yang, H., et al. (2020). Life cycle energy, emissions and cost evaluation of CO2 air source heat pump system to replace traditional heating methods for residential heating in China: System configurations. Energy Conversion and Management, 218, 112954.
Denev, J. A., Dinkov, I., and Bockhorn, H. (2017). Burner design for an industrial furnace for thermal post-combustion. Energy Procedia, 120, 484-491.
Fazeli, A., Pardakhti, A. R., and Zahed, M. A. (2020). Economic and environmental analysis of a new intelligent central heating system based on optimizing pollutant emissions. New Science and Technology, 2(2), 188-199.
Ferioli, F., and Buckley, S. G. (2006). Measurements of hydrocarbons using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Combustion and Flame, 144(3), 435-447.
He, Y., Du, Y., Guo, H., Yang, J., Sun, Y., Wang, Z., et al. (2021, January). Design and Research of Intelligent Building Control System. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 632, No. 4, p. 042023). IOP Publishing.
Kaczmarczyk, M., Sowiżdżał, A., and Tomaszewska, B. (2020). Energetic and environmental aspects of individual heat generation for sustainable development at a local scale—A case study from Poland. Energies, 13(2), 454.
Khosroshahi, M. K., and Sayadi, M. (2020). Tracking the sources of rebound effect resulting from the efficiency improvement in petrol, diesel, natural gas and electricity consumption; A CGE analysis for Iran. Energy, 197, 117134.
Kotb, A., and Saad, H. (2018). Case study for co and counter swirling domestic burners. Case studies in thermal engineering, 11, 98-104.
Li, J., and Morgans, A. S. (2016). Simplified models for the thermodynamic properties along a combustor and their effect on thermoacoustic instability prediction. Fuel, 184, 735-748.
Li, Y., Ding, Z., Shakerin, M., & Zhang, N. (2020). A multi-objective optimal design method for thermal energy storage systems with PCM: A case study for outdoor swimming pool heating application. Journal of Energy Storage, 29, 101371.
Lu J. Sookoor T. Srinivasan V. Gao G. Holben B. Stankovic J. Field E., and Whitehouse K. (2010). The Smart Thermostat: Using Occupancy Sensors to Save Energy in Homes. SenSys '10 Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, pp. 211-224.
Mahapatra, R. P., Srikant, S. S., Rao, R. B., and Mohanty, B. (2021). Less Polluted Flue Gases Obtained with Green Technology During Precious Metals Recovery from Unwanted and Discarded Electrical and Electronics Components. In Intelligent Computing and Applications (pp. 715-720). Springer, Singapore.
Moein, M., Shamsaei, S., and Khebri, Z. (2018). A Study of Sensitivity of AERMOD Model in Relation to Physical Factors of Stack. Journal of Research in Environmental Health, 4(3), 185-193.
Nägele, F., Kasper, T., and Girod, B. (2017). Turning up the heat on obsolete thermostats: A simulation-based comparison of intelligent control approaches for residential heating systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 75, 1254-1268.
Pfeiffer, C., Puchegger, M., Maier, C., Tomaschitz, I. V., Kremsner, T. P., and Gnam, L. (2021). A Case Study of Socially-Accepted Potentials for the Use of End User Flexibility by Home Energy Management Systems. Sustainability, 13(1), 132.
Pichler, M., Wesenauer, F., Jordan, C., Puskas, S., Streibl, B., Winter, F., and Harasek, M. (2021). Design and Simulation of Gas Burner Ejectors. Carbon Resources Conversion.
Ravanshadnia, M., and Jahromi, H. (2018). A Study of the Role of Building Management System in Simultaneous Reduction of Gas and Electricity Consumption in Heating System (Motor House) Office Buildings, 3rd International Conference on New Findings of Civil Architecture and Building Industry, Tehran, University of Tehran
Salimi, M., Faramarzi, D., Hosseinian, S. H., and Gharehpetian, G. B. (2020). Replacement of natural gas with electricity to improve seismic service resilience: An application to domestic energy utilities in Iran. Energy, 200, 117509.
Sarbu, I. (2021). Modelling, Optimisation and Modernisation of Heating Systems. In Advances in Building Services Engineering (pp. 87-208). Springer, Cham.
Shayesteh, A. A., Koohshekan, O., Ghasemi, A., Nemati, M., and Mokhtari, H. (2019). Determination of the ORC-RO system optimum parameters based on 4E analysis; Water–Energy-Environment nexus. Energy Conversion and Management, 183, 772-790.
Shi, C., Ji, C., Wang, S., Yang, J., Ma, Z., and Meng, H. (2020). Potential improvement in combustion behavior of a downsized rotary engine by intake oxygen enrichment. Energy Conversion and Management, 205, 112433.
Shu, J., Fu, J., Liu, J., Wang, S., Yin, Y., Deng, B., and Becker, S. M. (2019). Influences of excess air coefficient on combustion and emission performance of diesel pilot ignition natural gas engine by coupling computational fluid dynamics with reduced chemical kinetic model. Energy Conversion and Management, 187, 283-296.
Sovacool, B. K., and Del Rio, D. D. F. (2020). Smart home technologies in Europe: a critical review of concepts, benefits, risks and policies. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 120, 109663.
Sowayan, A. S. (2020). A Comparative Study of Solar Heat Transfer on Roof-Top Water Storage Tank Orientations in Saudi Arabia. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 1-12.
Stavropoulos, P., Michalakou, A., Skevis, G., and Couris, S. (2005). Quantitative local equivalence ratio determination in laminar premixed methane–air flames by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Chemical Physics Letters, 404(4-6), 309-314.
Wang, G., Tang, P., Li, Y., Xu, J., and Durst, F. (2019). Flame front stability of low calorific fuel gas combustion with preheated air in a porous burner. Energy, 170, 1279-1288.
Zahed, M. A., Pardakhti, A., Mohajeri, L., and Bateni, F. (2010). Wet deposition of hydrocarbons in the city of Tehran-Iran. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, 3(2), 77-82.