Economic and Environmental Evaluation of Waste to Energy through Gasification; Case study: Tehran

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Environmental Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Pardis Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pardis, Iran

Abstract

In spite of the past few decades, gasification of waste is being used in the developed countries. Reducing the space for landfill sites, producing fuel from waste, as well as avoiding negative impacts of landfilling, are of advantages of gasification. The research was aimed at feasibility study of application of Tehran municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification in addition to understanding the waste gasification as a stable and economic substitute for generating clean energy. On this basis, the researcher analyzed the required information through library research and by examining different types of available gasifiers in the developed countries. Firstly, the profitability of the project was assessed by using the net present value method and then, the cost-benefit analysis of the project was performed. In this study, three scenarios of the MSW landfilling and two gasification scenarios were analyzed. The research findings indicate that the gasification scenario is more economical than the landfill. Finally, the environmental analysis of all of the three scenarios was reviewed and considering the fact that the gasification scenarios are in line with the Fifth Economic Plan of the Islamic Republic of Iran, they can be proposed as the best scenarios. As to comparison of the two gasification scenarios, it was found out that considering the capacity of the waste produced in Tehran and the volume of the input waste of the two gasifiers and reduction of the operational costs of Termiska TPS Gasifier, the model of Termiska TPS Gasifier is a more suitable option for Tehran.

Keywords


Akhgari, P. and Kamalan, H. (2012). Economical – environmental evaluation of natural gas and renewable energy systems. International Journal of Energy Research, DOI: 10.1002/er.2946.

Alizadeh, S., Kamalan, H. and Monavar, M. (2013) Economical Comparison of two Waste to Energy Methods– Gasification and Anaerobic Digestion. The Third National Conference on Fuel, Energy and Environment, Karaj, Iran.

Alizadeh, S., Kamalan, H. and Monavar, M. (2013). Economical Comparison of two Waste to Energy Methods– Landfill Gas and Incineration. Second National Conference on Sustainable Development and Healthy Environment, Hamedan, Iran.

Arena, U. (2011). Process & technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. Waste management, 32(4): 625–639, DOI: 10,1016/j.wasman.

Arena, U., Di Gregorio, F., Amorese, C. and Mastellone, M.L. (2011). A techno-economic comparison of fluidized bed gasification of two mixed plastic wastes. Waste Management 31, 1494–1504. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2011.02.004.

Atabi, F. (2009). Calculation of CH4 and CO2 emissions at landfill sites using mathematical models of gas (Kahrizak case study). End MS, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Department of Environment.

Austerman, S. and Whiting, K.J. (2007). Advanced conversion technology (gasification) for Biomass projects. Prepared by Juniper for Renewable East. Report produced by Juniper Consultancy Services Ltd for Renewables East Page 50 © Juniper Consultancy Services Ltd.

Belgiorno, V. and De Feo, G. and Della Rocca, C. (2003). Energy from gasification of solid wastes. R.M.A. Napoli, Waste Management 23, 1–15.

BC- Berlin (2004) Tehran solid waste management project landfill per parathion study, Final Report. Tehran. Iran.

Denison, R.A. (1996). Environmental life- cycle comparisons of recycling, landfilling, and Incineration. Annual Reviews of Energy and Environment. 21, 191-237.

Di Blasi, C. (2000). Dynamic behaviour of stratified downdraft gasifier. Chemical Engineering Science 55, 2931–2944.

EREN (2002) Gasification based Biomass. http://www.Eren.doe.gov/power/pdfs/bio_gasification.pdf Grimshaw AJ, Lago A (2010). Small Scale Energos Gasification Technology. 3rd Int. Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste, Venice, Italy, 8–11 November. CISA Publisher, Italy-ISBN 978- 88-6265-008-3.

Hankalin, V., Helanti, V. and Isaksson, J. (2011). High efficiency power production by gasification. In: Thirteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, 3–7 October, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy. CISA Publisher, Italy. ISBN 978-88-6265-000-

Harati, A., Pourmohammad Sakha, F. (2009). Landfill Gas Extraction Potential From Conventional Landfills-Case Study Of Kahrizak Landfill.

Herman, C., Schwager, F.J. and Whiting, K.J. (2001). Pyrolysis & Gasification of Waste. A Worldwide Technology & Business Review. 2nd Edition. Juniper Consultancy Services Ltd.

Johari, A., Isa Ahmed, S., Hashim, H. and Alkali, M.R. (2010). Economic and environmental benefits of landfill gas from municipal solid waste in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, issue 5, pages 2907-2912 www.elsevier.com/locate.

Kamalan, H., Omrani, G.H. and Majidi, S. (2012). Gasification of different technologies to extract energy from waste.  ETEC Conference, Emerging trends in energy conservation.

Klien, A. (2002). Gasification: An Alternative Process for Energy Recovery and Disposal of Municipal Solid Wastes. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M.S. in Earth Resources Engineering, Columbia University. Pages 50.

Monavari, M. (2002). Dams environmental impacts assessment guideline. Collection of Environmental impact assessment guideline, No 3. Environment conservation organization publishing: Tehran, 200. inistry of energy. Energy balance- sheet of Islamic Republic of Iran. Ministry of energy publishing: Tehran.

National Non- Food Crops center (2009). N007. Review of technologies for gasification of Biomass and Waste.

NETL-U.S. DOE (1995). Refinery Technology Profiles. Gasification and Supporting Technologies, available on: www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/gasification.

Niessen, W.R., Markes, C.H. and Sommerlad, R.E. (1996). Evaluation of Gasification and Novel Thermal Processes for the Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste (Report NREL/TP-430-21612). NREL.

NNFCC project (2009) Review of technology for the gasification of biomass & wastes E4tech, Jun.

Pantin, S., Verginelli, I. (2013). A new screening model for leachate production assessment at landfill sites. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. DIO: 10.1007/s/3762-013-0344-7.

Pasandideh Fard, M., Vaezi, M. and Moghiman, M. (2007). Feasibility study of an alternative method for the disposal of heavy fuels: combustion instead of Gasification. The sixth National conference on energy.

Oskounejad, M.M. (2011). Engineering Economy-Industrial projects economical assessment. Amir Kabir university publishing page: 91–118. Tehran. Iran.

Porsche, T., Altmann, H. and Korobov, D. (2007). Gasification_ History & Activities within The Vattenfall Group. 2nd International Freiberg Conference on IGCC & XtL Technologies.

Sabour, M. and Kamalan, H. (2009). Methane Emission Estimation form The First Sanitary Cellule in Iran, 8th International Conference of Civil Engineering.

Scharff, H. and Jacobs, J. (2006). Applying guidance for methane emission estimation for landfills. Waste Management 26, 417–429. DIO: 10.1016/j.wasman.2005.11.015.

SCS Engineers (1989-1990). New York City Waste Composition Study.

Shafipoor Motlagh, M., Sarsiabi, M. and Kamalan, H. (2005). An reactive environmental economy model for energy cycle in I.R.Iran. Iranian Journal of health environmental engineering.

Stantec (2010). Waste to Energy. A technical review of municipal solid waste thermal treatment practices. Final Report for Environmental Quality Branch Environmental Protection Division. Project No.: 1231-10166.

Vadillo, I, Carrasco, F., Andreo, B., García de Torres A, and Bosch, C. (1999). Chemical composition of landfill leachate in a karst area with a Mediterranean climate (Marbella, southern Spain). Environmental Geology, 37(4): 326-332. 

Volkmann, D. (2004). Future Energy, Update on Technology and Projects. Paper Presented at Gasification Technologies Conference, Washington D.C., and October. 2004

Zaman, A.U. (2013). Life cycle assessment of pyrolysis–gasification as an emerging municipal solid waste treatment technology. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 10(5), 1029-1038.