Analysis of Factors Affecting Social Participation in Municipal Waste Management

Document Type : Research Article


1 Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Mechanical Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering Sharif University of Technology Tehran Iran

3 Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Cities around the world face many challenges in urban waste management, the most important of which are increased energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, unsanitary public spaces and bad odors, and low recycling rates and limited spaces. Benefiting from social participation, along with integrated urban planning and strategy, can be a safe and physical solution in the optimal management of municipal waste. Extraction of effective components and effectiveness in this process is one of the most important management parameters in the implementation of effective urban management programs. In this study, using descriptive-analytical research method and examining the theoretical foundations and experiences and findings of research conducted in the world and successful case studies such as Istanbul, San Francisco, Guangdong, Mangalore was performed and first analyzed using the Delphi technique of effective indicators in public participation focusing on urban waste management in three rounds of a questionnaire and then by combining the questionnaire tools from the Fuzzy Hierarchical Analysis (FAHP) test based on Chang method. It was used to prioritize the components and factors affecting the social participation of municipal waste management. To determine the number of questionnaires, experts and specialists were used using Cochran's method in the form of simple random sampling method. The results show that the social component is in the first rank and the economic, educational and cultural components, laws and regulations are in the next ranks, respectively. Also, from the social components of people's lifestyle, food consumption pattern had the highest priority.


Abbott, J. (2013). Sharing the city: community participation in urban management. Routledge.
Abdel‐Basset, M., Manogaran, G., Mohamed, M., and Rushdy, E. (2019). Internet of things in smart education environment: Supportive framework in the decision‐making process. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 31(10), e4515.
Afshar, F., Abbaspour, M., and Lahijanian, A., (2019). Providing a practical model of the waste management master plan with emphasis on public participation, Using the SWOT method, the QSPM matrix and the FAHP method. Advances in Environmental Technology, 5(2), 77-96.
Ali, H., Khan, E., and Ilahi, I. (2019). Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology of hazardous heavy metals: environmental persistence, toxicity, and bioaccumulation. Journal of chemistry, 2019.
Almasi, A., Mohammadi, M., Azizi, A., Berizi, Z., Shamsi, K., Shahbazi, A., and Mosavi, S. A. (2019). Assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice of the kermanshahi women towards reducing, recycling and reusing of municipal solid waste. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 141, 329-338.
Andre, J. M., Bishop, D. M., Ceperley, D., Dykstra, C. E., Hynes, J. T., Jorgensen, W. L., et al. (1995). 12th Canadian Symposium on Theoretical Chemistry 12ième Symposium Canadien sur la Chimie Théorique.
Archibugi, D., and Benli, A. E. (Eds.). (2017). Claiming citizenship rights in Europe: Emerging challenges and political agents. Routledge.
Aung, T. S., Luan, S., and Xu, Q. (2019). Application of multi-criteria-decision approach for the analysis of medical waste management systems in Myanmar. Journal of Cleaner Production, 222, 733-745.
Ayvaz-Cavdaroglu, N., Coban, A., and Firtina-Ertis, I. (2019). Municipal solid waste management via mathematical modeling: A case study in Istanbul, Turkey. Journal of environmental management, 244, 362-369.
Baby, A., and Mathew, S. (2020). A Correlative Study to Assess the Knowledge and Practice of Housewives Regarding Householdwaste Management in Selected Rural Community at Mangalore with a View to Provide an Information Pamphlet. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 11(3), 466-470.
Balogun, O. O., Dagvadorj, A., Yourkavitch, J., da Silva Lopes, K., Suto, M., Takemoto, Y., et al. (2017). Health facility staff training for improving breastfeeding outcome: A systematic review for step 2 of the Baby-Friendly Hospital initiative. Breastfeeding Medicine, 12(9), 537-546.
Beeri, I., Uster, A., and Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2019). Does performance management relate to good governance? A study of its relationship with citizens’ satisfaction with and trust in Israeli local government. Public Performance and Management Review, 42(2), 241-279.
Bhandari, R., and Smith, F. J. (2000). Education and food consumption patterns in China: Household analysis and policy implications. Journal of Nutrition Education, 32(4), 214-224.
Billings, A. G., and Moos, R. H. (1981). The role of coping responses and social resources in attenuating the stress of life events. Journal of behavioral medicine, 4(2), 139-157.
Boonrod, K., Towprayoon, S., Bonnet, S., and Tripetchkul, S. (2015). Enhancing organic waste separation at the source behavior: A case study of the application of motivation mechanisms in communities in Thailand. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 95, 77-90.
Booth, L., Aivazian, V., Demirguc‐Kunt, A., and Maksimovic, V. (2001). Capital structures in developing countries. The journal of finance, 56(1), 87-130.
Bouckaert, G., and Van de Walle, S. (2003). Comparing measures of citizen trust and user satisfaction as indicators of ‘good governance’: Difficulties in linking trust and satisfaction indicators. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 69(3), 329-343.
Briguglio, M., and Sultana, A. (2018). Man cannot live by bread alone: Cultural Participation and Life-Satisfaction in Malta. Journal of Mediterranean Studies, 10000(1), 15-36.
Chen, Y. C., Chang, L. C., Liu, C. Y., Ho, Y. F., Weng, S. C., and Tsai, T. I. (2018). The roles of social support and health literacy in self‐management among patients with chronic kidney disease. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 50(3), 265-275.
Chun, S., Shulman, S., Sandoval, R., and Hovy, E. (2010). Government 2.0: Making connections between citizens, data and government. Information Polity, 15(1, 2), 1-9.
Chung, S. S., and Poon, C. S. (2001). A comparison of waste-reduction practices and new environmental paradigm of rural and urban Chinese citizens. Journal of Environmental Management, 62(1), 3-19.
Coban, A., Ertis, I. F., and Cavdaroglu, N. A. (2018). Municipal solid waste management via multi-criteria decision making methods: A case study in Istanbul, Turkey. Journal of cleaner production, 180, 159-167.
Coelho, L. M. G., and Lange, L. C. (2018). Applying life cycle assessment to support environmentally sustainable waste management strategies in Brazil. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 128, 438-450.
Contreras, M., Teixeira, S. R., Lucas, M. C., Lima, L. C. N., Cardoso, D. S. L., Da Silva, G. A. C., et al. (2016). Recycling of construction and demolition waste for producing new construction material (Brazil case-study). Construction and Building Materials, 123, 594-600.
Das, S., Lee, S. H., Kumar, P., Kim, K. H., Lee, S. S., & Bhattacharya, S. S. (2019). Solid waste management: Scope and the challenge of sustainability. Journal of cleaner production, 228, 658-678.
Ebreo, A., and Vining, J. (2001). How similar are recycling and waste reduction? Future orientation and reasons for reducing waste as predictors of self-reported behavior. Environment and Behavior, 33(3), 424-448.
Farjad, H. R., Daneshfard, K., Mazaheri, M. M., and Shirvani, A. (2015). Relationship of new public management (NPM) and citizens public participation on public policy in Iran. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences: Proceedings, 4(1 (s)), pp-247.
Flostrand, A., Pitt, L., and Bridson, S. (2020). The Delphi technique in forecasting–A 42-year bibliographic analysis (1975–2017). Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 150, 119773.
Ghodsi Pour, S. H. (2007). Analytical hierarchy process AHP, 5th edition: University of Amir Kabir (Tehran polytechnic), Tehran
Giusti, A., Maggini, M., and Colaceci, S. (2020). The burden of chronic diseases across Europe: what policies and programs to address diabetes? A SWOT analysis. Health research policy and systems, 18(1), 1-7.
Govindaraju, B. M. (2018). Health issues among the Slum Dwellers of mangalore City. Asian Journal of Development Matters, 12(1s), 272-278.
Guerrero, L. A., Maas, G., and Hogland, W. (2013). Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries. Waste management, 33(1), 220-232.
Gurbuz, I. B., and Ozkan, G. (2019). Consumers’ knowledge, attitude and behavioural patterns towards the liquid wastes (cooking oil) in Istanbul, Turkey. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(16), 16529-16536.
Guven, H., Wang, Z., and Eriksson, O. (2019). Evaluation of future food waste management alternatives in Istanbul from the life cycle assessment perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 239, 117999.
Håkansson, M., Kronlid, D. O. O., and Östman, L. (2019). Searching for the political dimension in education for sustainable development: socially critical, social learning and radical democratic approaches. Environmental Education Research, 25(1), 6-32.
Hami, A., Tarashkar, M., and Emami, F. (2020). The Relationship Between Women's Preferences for Landscape Spatial Configurations and Relevant Socio-Economic Variables. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, 46(2).
Hohmann, E., Angelo, R., Arciero, R., Bach, B. R., Cole, B., Cote, M., et al. (2020). Degenerative meniscus lesions: An expert consensus statement using the modified Delphi technique. Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, 36(2), 501-512.
Holm, L., Nielsen, A. L., and Lund, T. B. (2020). Adapting to financial pressure on household food budgets in Denmark: Associations with life satisfaction and dietary health. Acta Sociologica, 63(2), 191-208.
Hosseini, F. (2005). Investigating the social factors affecting youth participation in non-governmental organizations. Master Thesis, Al-Zahra University.
Hughes, M., and Demo, D. H. (1989). Self-perceptions of Black Americans: Self-esteem and personal efficacy. American Journal of Sociology, 95(1), 132-159.
Irvin, R. A., and Stansbury, J. (2004). Citizen participation in decision making: is it worth the effort?. Public administration review, 64(1), 55-65.
Jang, W., Eskelson, B. N., Murray, T., Crosby, K. B., Wagner, S., Gorby, E., and Aven, N. W. (2020). Relationships between invasive plant species occurrence and socio-economic variables in urban green spaces of southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 47, 126527.
Jasanoff, S. (2005). Technologies of humility: Citizen participation in governing science. In Wozu Experten? (pp. 370-389). VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Kattoua, M. G., Al-Khatib, I. A., and Kontogianni, S. (2019). Barriers on the propagation of household solid waste recycling practices in developing countries: State of Palestine example. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 21(4), 774-785.
Kaza, S., Yao, L., Bhada-Tata, P., and Van Woerden, F. (2018). What a waste 2.0: a global snapshot of solid waste management to 2050. The World Bank.
Kirchhoff, M. (2020). Differential solidarity: protests against deportations as structured contestations over citizenship. Citizenship Studies, 24(4), 568-586.
Kotsios, V. (2017). LISADEMAS: A Life Satisfaction Decision-Making System for Integrated Community Development Planning. In Handbook of Community Well-Being Research (pp. 355-383). Springer, Dordrecht.
Li, J., Zhang, D., and Su, B. (2019). The impact of social awareness and lifestyles on household carbon emissions in China. Ecological Economics, 160, 145-155.
Limon, M. R., Vallente, J. P. C., and Corales, N. C. T. (2020). Solid waste management beliefs and practices in rural households towards sustainable development and pro-environmental citizenship. Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 6(4), 441-456.
Lu, Y., Jung, J. H., and Bauldry, S. (2019). Explaining the cross-national variation in the relationship between religious organization membership and civic organization participation. Social science research, 83, 102310.
Lund, B. D. (2020). Review of the Delphi method in library and information science research. Journal of Documentation.
Maleki, M. (2018). The Sociological Explanation of Economic Participation among Young People in Khalkhal City. Sociological Studies of Youth, 9(29), 27-46.
Marshall, R. E., and Farahbakhsh, K. (2013). Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries. Waste management, 33(4), 988-1003.
Miezah, K., Obiri-Danso, K., Kádár, Z., Fei-Baffoe, B., and Mensah, M. Y. (2015). Municipal solid waste characterization and quantification as a measure towards effective waste management in Ghana. Waste Management, 46, 15-27.
Minton, E. A., Johnson, K. A., and Liu, R. L. (2019). Religiosity and special food consumption: The explanatory effects of moral priorities. Journal of Business Research, 95, 442-454.
Mmereki, D. (2018). Current status of waste management in Botswana: A mini-review. Waste Management & Research, 36(7), 555-576.
Ngoc, U. N., and Schnitzer, H. (2009). Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries. Waste management, 29(6), 1982-1995.
Nižetić, S., Djilali, N., Papadopoulos, A., and Rodrigues, J. J. (2019). Smart technologies for promotion of energy efficiency, utilization of sustainable resources and waste management. Journal of cleaner production, 231, 565-591.
O’Donnell, T. H., Deutsch, J., Yungmann, C., Zeitz, A., and Katz, S. H. (2015). New sustainable market opportunities for surplus food: A food system-sensitive methodology (FSSM). Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6(10), 883.
Okes, D. (2019). Root cause analysis: The core of problem solving and corrective action. Quality Press.
Oyserman, D. (2009). Identity-based motivation: Implications for action-readiness, procedural-readiness, and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(3), 250-260.
Padash, A., and Ataee, S. (2019). Prioritization of environmental sensitive spots in studies of environmental impact assessment to select the preferred option, based on AHP and GIS compound in the gas pipeline project. Pollution, 5(3), 671-685.
Padash, A., and Ghatari, A. R. (2020). Toward an Innovative Green Strategic Formulation Methodology: Empowerment of corporate social, health, safety and environment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 121075.
Papargyropoulou, E., Lozano, R., Steinberger, J. K., Wright, N., and bin Ujang, Z. (2014). The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste. Journal of cleaner production, 76, 106-115.
Platt, B., Goldstein, N., Coker, C., and Brown, S. (2014). State of Composting in the US. Institute for Local Self-Reliance.
Pullishery, F., Panchmal, G. S., Siddique, S., and Abraham, A. (2016). Awareness, knowledge and practices on bio-medical waste management among health care professionals in Mangalore-A cross sectional study. Int Arch Integr Med, 3, 29-35.
Richard, J. E., and Meuli, P. G. (2013). Exploring and modelling digital natives' intention to use permission-based location-aware mobile advertising. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(5-6), 698-719.
Rudel, T. K., Defries, R., Asner, G. P., and Laurance, W. F. (2009). Changing drivers of deforestation and new opportunities for conservation. Conservation Biology, 23(6), 1396-1405.
Sabet, N. S., and Khaksar, S. (2020). The performance of local government, social capital and participation of villagers in sustainable rural development. The Social Science Journal, 1-29.
Schübeler, P., Christen, J., and Wehrle, K. (1996). Conceptual framework for municipal solid waste management in low-income countries (Vol. 9). St. Gallen: SKAT (Swiss Center for Development Cooperation).
Shafiei, Sh. (2002). Investigating the effective factors on social participation of Ardabil citizens. New Season Online Magazine, Second Year, No. 50. pp. 17-24.
Shawahna, R. (2020). Quality indicators of pharmaceutical care for integrative healthcare: a scoping review of indicators developed using the Delphi technique. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2020.
Sherif, M., and Azlina Shaairi, N. (2013). Determinants of demand on family Takaful in Malaysia, Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, 4(1), 26-50.
Silva, A., Rosano, M., Stocker, L., and Gorissen, L. (2017). From waste to sustainable materials management: Three case studies of the transition journey. Waste management, 61, 547-557.
Smith, V. (2010). Enhancing employability: Human, cultural, and social capital in an era of turbulent unpredictability. Human relations, 63(2), 279-300.
Starkey, L. (2019). Three dimensions of student-centred education: a framework for policy and practice. Critical Studies in Education, 60(3), 375-390.
Van Ryzin, G. G., Muzzio, D., Immerwahr, S., Gulick, L., and Martinez, E. (2004). Drivers and consequences of citizen satisfaction: An application of the American customer satisfaction index model to New York City. Public Administration Review, 64(3), 331-341.
Vella, S. A., Benson, A., Sutcliffe, J., McLaren, C., Swann, C., Schweickle, M. J., et al. (2020). Self-determined motivation, social identification and the mental health of adolescent male team sport participants. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1-15.
Vij, D. (2012). Urbanization and solid waste management in India: present practices and future challenges. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 37, 437-447.
Wagner, T. P. (2017). Reducing single-use plastic shopping bags in the USA. Waste Management, 70, 3-12.
Watkins, L., Aitken, R., and Mather, D. (2016). Conscientious consumers: a relationship between moral foundations, political orientation and sustainable consumption. Journal of Cleaner Production, 134, 137-146.
Wenger, G. C., Dykstra, P. A., Melkas, T., and Knipscheer, K. C. (2007). Social embeddedness and late-life parenthood: Community activity, close ties, and support networks. Journal of family issues, 28(11), 1419-1456.
Zelekha, Y., and Dana, L. P. (2019). Social capital versus cultural capital determinants of entrepreneurship: an empirical study of the African continent. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 28(2), 250-269.
Zhu, K. J., Jing, Y., and Chang, D. Y. (1999). A discussion on extent analysis method and applications of fuzzy AHP. European journal of operational research, 116(2), 450-456.
Zuhair, M. H., and Kurian, P. A. (2016). Socio-economic and political barriers to public participation in EIA: implications for sustainable development in the Maldives. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 34(2), 129-142.