Implementing an Effective and Excellent Governance Framework toward Sustainability

Document Type : Research Article


Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


Environment is an interdisciplinary subject, a subject that requires policy-making, management, government cooperation, empathy and civil society participation with regard to the economy and legal framework. The nature of the environment, which is a complex and cross-sectoral interwoven system. In terms of scale, it is even extended to a trans-territorial scale and includes or affects issues such as political, social, economic, cultural, energy, regional development, poverty, etc. Meanwhile, the government's role in the economy has become more colorful and the government's management in providing public goods such as environmental protection and its quality has become more colorful and effective than in the past. Governance is a challenging, subtle and complex concept that requires more description and explanation, and from the point of view of the environment and sustainable development, it should be in such a way that they can have the most economic efficiency and political acceptance, this concept has a more effective meaning in the context of environmental governance. This concept has a more effective and efficient meaning in the framework of environmental governance. This research analyzes the concept of governance by relying on the concept, action framework and approach of environment and sustainable development and explains the reasons for paying attention to environmental issues from the traditional approach of command and control to sustainable governance, case examples of environmental crises. In this research, it has been reviewed and finally, a framework for effective transcendental governance with a sustainable development approach has been presented.


Andreeva, G., Ansell, J., & Harrison, T. (2014). Governance and accountability of public risk. Financial Accountability & Management, 30(3), 342-361.
Ansari, M., Ehrampoush, M. H., Farzadkia, M., & Ahmadi, E. (2019). Dynamic assessment of economic and environmental performance index and generation, composition, environmental and human health risks of hospital solid waste in developing countries; A state of the art of review. Environment international, 132, 105073.
Armitage, D., De Loë, R., & Plummer, R. (2012). Environmental governance and its implications for conservation practice. Conservation letters, 5(4), 245-255.
Bennett, N. J., & Satterfield, T. (2018). Environmental governance: A practical framework to guide design, evaluation, and analysis. Conservation Letters, 11(6), e12600.
Bhaumik, S. K. (2018). Governance: Some Observations. In Economics, Management and Sustainability (pp. 13-25). Springer, Singapore.
Boisvert, V., & Vivien, F. D. (2012). Towards a political economy approach to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 36(5), 1163-1179.
Boon, E. K., & Eyong, C. T. (2010). History and civilizations: Impacts on sustainable development in Africa. Global Security and International Political Economy–Volume V.
Bryson, J. M., Crosby, B. C., & Bloomberg, L. (2014). Public value governance: Moving beyond traditional public administration and the new public management. Public administration review, 74(4), 445-456.
Bucher, S. (2016). Measuring of Environmental Performance Index in Europe. Rocznik Ochrona ƚrodowiska, 18.
Chaffin, B. C., Garmestani, A. S., Gunderson, L. H., Benson, M. H., Angeler, D. G., Arnold, C. A. T., ... & Allen, C. R. (2016). Transformative environmental governance. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 41, 399.
Chang, C. P., & Hao, Y. (2017). Environmental performance, corruption and economic growth: global evidence using a new data set. Applied Economics, 49(5), 498-514.
Crum, B. (2018). Parliamentary accountability in multilevel governance: what role for parliaments in post-crisis EU economic governance?. Journal of European Public Policy, 25(2), 268-286.
Davari, A., & Najmabadi, A. D. (2018). Entrepreneurial ecosystem and performance in Iran. In Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) (pp. 265-282). Springer, Cham.
Deng, F. M., Kimaro, S., Lyons, T., Rothchild, D., & Zartman, I. W. (2010). Sovereignty as responsibility: conflict management in Africa. Brookings Institution Press.
Dickinson, H. (2016). From new public management to new public governance: The implications for a ‘new public service’. The Three Sector Solution: Delivering public policy in collaboration with not-for-profits and business, 41.
Ebrahimnia, M., & Jafari Bibalan, B. (2017). Water resources in Iran and the reasons for establishing river basin organizations: review of the first experience for Zayandeh Rud. Reviving the Dying Giant, 11-31.
Emadodin, I., Reinsch, T., & Taube, F. (2019). Drought and desertification in Iran. Hydrology, 6(3), 66.
Escap, U. (2009). What is good governance?.
Fukuyama, F. (2016). Governance: What do we know, and how do we know it. Annual Review of Political Science, 19(1), 89-105.
Garshasbi, P. (2014). Drought conditions and management strategies in Iran. Jihad Agriculture Ministry of the IR Iran.
Gorjian, S., & Ghobadian, B. (2015). Solar desalination: A sustainable solution to water crisis in Iran. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 48, 571-584.
Gupta, D. K., Madhavan, M. C., & Blee, A. (1998). Democracy, economic growth and political instability: an integrated perspective. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 27(5), 587-589.
Héritier, A., & Moury, C. (2012). Institutional Change In European Governance: The Commission´ s Implementing Powers and the European Parliament. In The Oxford Handbook of Governance.
Howlett, M., Kekez, A., & Poocharoen, O. O. (2017). Understanding co-production as a policy tool: Integrating new public governance and comparative policy theory. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 19(5), 487-501.
Isham, J., Kaufmann, D., & Pritchett, L. (1995). Governance and Returns on Investment An Empirical Investigation. World Bank Publications.
Jamshidi, O., Asadi, A., Kalantari, K., Azadi, H., & Scheffran, J. (2019). Vulnerability to climate change of smallholder farmers in the Hamadan province, Iran. Climate Risk Management, 23, 146-159.
Kazakova, N. A., Bolvachev, A. I., Gendon, A. L., & Golubeva, G. F. (2016). Monitoring economic security in the region based on indicators of sustainable development. Studies on Russian Economic Development, 27(6), 638-648.
Keping, Y. (2018). Governance and good governance: A new framework for political analysis. Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, 11(1), 1-8.
Kerzner, H. (2019). Using the project management maturity model: strategic planning for project management. John Wiley & Sons.
Keshavarz, M., Karami, E., & Vanclay, F. (2013). The social experience of drought in rural Iran. Land use policy, 30(1), 120-129.
Khatibi, S., & Arjjumend, H. (2019). Water crisis in making in Iran. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 2(3), 45-54.
Kim, S. Y., & Manger, M. S. (2017). Hubs of governance: path dependence and higher-order effects of preferential trade agreement formation. Political Science Research and Methods, 5(3), 467-488.
Kim, Y. J., Lee, J. M., Koo, C., & Nam, K. (2013). The role of governance effectiveness in explaining IT outsourcing performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(5), 850-860.
Kohler, J. C., & Martinez, M. G. (2015). Participatory health councils and good governance: healthy democracy in Brazil?. International journal for equity in health, 14(1), 1-9.
Luo, T., Young, R., & Reig, P. (2015). Aqueduct projected water stress country rankings. Technical Note, 16.
Madani, K. (2014). Water management in Iran: what is causing the looming crisis?. Journal of environmental studies and sciences, 4(4), 315-328.
Maddocks, A., Young, R. S., & Reig, P. (2015). Ranking the world’s most water-stressed countries in 2040.
McFarlane, D., Stone, R., Martens, S., Thomas, J., Silberstein, R., Ali, R., & Hodgson, G. (2012). Climate change impacts on water yields and demands in south-western Australia. Journal of Hydrology, 475, 488-498.
Munjuri, M. G. (2011). The effect of human resource management practices in enhancing employee performance in catholic institutions of Higher Learning in Kenya. International Journal of Business Administration, 2(4), 189.
Naciti, V. (2019). Corporate governance and board of directors: The effect of a board composition on firm sustainability performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 237, 117727.
Ngo, C., & Tarko, V. (2018). Economic development in a rent-seeking society: socialism, state capitalism and crony capitalism in Vietnam. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d'études du développement, 39(4), 481-499.
Nilsson, S., & Pitt, D. (2013). Protecting the atmosphere: the Climate Change Convention and its context. Routledge.
Noor, N. L. M., & Noordin, N. (2016). A Halal governance structure: Towards a Halal certification market. In Contemporary Issues and Development in the Global Halal Industry (pp. 153-164). Springer, Singapore.
Ntongho, R. A. (2016). Culture and corporate governance convergence. International Journal of Law and Management.
OECD (2011), Water Governance in OECD: A Multi-Level Approach, OECD Publishing, Paris
Ojha, H. R., Ghate, R., Dorji, L., Shrestha, A., Paudel, D., Nightingale, A., ... & Kotru, R. (2019). Governance: Key for environmental sustainability in the Hindu Kush Himalaya. In The Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment (pp. 545-578). Springer, Cham.
Pang, R., Zheng, D., Shi, M., & Zhang, X. (2019). Pollute first, control later? Exploring the economic threshold of effective environmental regulation in China's context. Journal of environmental management, 248, 109275.
Peerapun, W. (2012). Participatory planning in urban conservation and regeneration: A case study of Amphawa Community. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36, 243-252.
Peters, D., Axsen, J., & Mallett, A. (2018). The role of environmental framing in socio-political acceptance of smart grid: The case of British Columbia, Canada. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82, 1939-1951.
Pevato, P. M. (2017). International Environmental Law, Volumes I and II. Routledge.
Pisano, I., & Lubell, M. (2017). Environmental behavior in cross-national perspective: A multilevel analysis of 30 countries. Environment and Behavior, 49(1), 31-58.
Renn, O. (2017). Risk governance: coping with uncertainty in a complex world. Routledge.
Rhodes, R. A. (2007). Understanding governance: Ten years on. Organization studies, 28(8), 1243-1264.
Rieckmann, M. (2018). Learning to transform the world: Key competencies in Education for Sustainable Development. Issues and trends in education for sustainable development, 39, 39-59.
Rowbotham, E. J. (2019). Legal obligations and uncertainties in the climate change convention. In Politics of Climate Change (pp. 32-50). Routledge.
Runya, X. U., Qigui, S. U. N., & Wei, S. I. (2015). The third wave of public administration: The new public governance. Canadian Social Science, 11(7), 11-21.
Saint-Laurent, C. (2019). The forest principles and the inter-governmental panel on forests. In The Way Forward (pp. 65-82). Routledge.
Sanjerehei, M. M., & Rundel, P. W. (2017). The future of Iranian wetlands under climate change. Wetlands ecology and management, 25(3), 257-273.
Tabari, H., Nikbakht, J., & Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P. (2013). Hydrological drought assessment in Northwestern Iran based on streamflow drought index (SDI). Water resources management, 27(1), 137-151.
Tabesh, M., Feizee Masooleh, M., Roghani, B., & Motevallian, S. S. (2019). Life-cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater treatment plants: a case study of Tehran, Iran. International Journal of Civil Engineering, 17(7), 1155-1169.
Taylor, I. (2016). Global Governance and Transnationalizing Capitalist Hegemony: the myth of the'emerging powers'. Routledge.
Taylor, Z. (2016). Good governance at the local level: Meaning and measurement. Institute on Municipal Finance and Governance. University of Toronto.
Ten Brink, T. (2019). China's Capitalism. In China's Capitalism. University of Pennsylvania Press.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (1997). Governance for Sustainable Human Development: A Policy Document. New York, NY: United Nations
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2010). UNESCO four dimensions of sustainable development. Retrieved 10 February, 2013, from
Van Buren, N., Demmers, M., Van der Heijden, R., & Witlox, F. (2016). Towards a circular economy: The role of Dutch logistics industries and governments. Sustainability, 8(7), 647.
Van der Molen, F. (2018). How knowledge enables governance: The coproduction of environmental governance capacity. Environmental science & policy, 87, 18-25.
Vasylieva, T. A., Harust, Y. V., Vynnychenko, N. V., & Vysochyna, A. V. (2018). Optimization of the financial decentralization level as an instrument for the country's innovative economic development regulation. Marketing and Management of Innovations, 4, 382-391.
Vetterlein, A. (2018). Responsibility is more than accountability: from regulatory towards negotiated governance. Contemporary Politics, 24(5), 545-567.
WCED, S. W. S. (1987). World commission on environment and development. Our common future, 17(1), 1-91.
World Bank. (1992). Governance and development. The World Bank.